THE STROMBOLI VOLCANO IN ERUPTION

"Like a rain of fire falling from the sky". Stromboli, a volcano on the Aeolian Archipelago in Italy, erupted on Wednesday.

A particularly impressive phenomenon that caused the death of a tourist and caused the beginning of fires.

According to the Italian National Institute of Geophysics, two huge explosions occurred Wednesday on the south-central slope of the crater of the volcano around 4:45 pm French time.

The explosions were preceded by lava flows "from all active mouths", projecting a plume of smoke two kilometers high, said the INVG.

But the eruption this Wednesday, July 3 Stromboli differs from other volcanic explosions by its power. Stromboli, a very active volcano, has so far not experienced such strong eruptions, the last dating from 2003 and 2007.

In normal times, volcanic bombs are projected at 100 meters height, sometimes 200 meters. There he was 2 kilometers tall. The volcano has become "more explosive" because there is more gas that has accumulated in the reservoir.

As Stromboli is still active nothing allows scientists to predict its eruptions.

Despite the dangers, this area remains largely inhabited. The volcanic island of Stromboli, with an area of ​​12.6 km2, has about 500 inhabitants. It attracts many tourists every year from the beginning of spring.

This "very violent explosion" forced about a hundred tourists to snuggle into their homes, while others decided to find refuge at sea. Riflemen, the State Forestry Corps and fire brigades were dispatched to their homes. square.

Sicily, which was struck by a magnitude 4.8 earthquake on the Richter scale in 2018, experienced a new eruption of Etna in early June, with lava flows and ash columns. rising in the sky.

Jaimie Potts for DayNewsWorld

A WORLD SCIENTIFIC FACTOR

AN ODYSSEE 28 DAYS UNDER THE SEA

The photographer and biologist Laurent Ballesta embarks on a new underwater adventure on Monday:

28 days at 120 meters deep, between Marseille and Monaco. Fascinated by Commander Jacques-Yves Cousteau, he takes the torch of his underwater exploits to explore the Mediterranean.

At 45, including thirty years of diving, he will live an extraordinary expedition. With his three teammates, they will live 28 days at sea, 120 meters deep, between Marseille and Monaco, behind closed doors.

"Exoticism is not at the end of the world. In the Mediterranean, there are virgin places, "says this passionate seabed.

A challenge of nature: 28 days behind closed doors at 120 meters depth

For such a mission, it was necessary to defy nature. The pressure in this area - thirteen times that of the surface! - indeed requires long decompression times and significantly shortens the time of exploration.

"The problem of diving," he says, "is not the descent, it's the ascent. For a handful of minutes at great depth, it is hours and hours of ascent and decompression required.

"When you only spend thirty minutes at a depth of 120 meters, the climb lasts five hours! "Laments Laurent Ballesta.

To challenge nature and save time, Ballesta and his team came up with new techniques using practices already in place, but never before combined. The result is called "Gombessa V: Mediterranean Planet".

A twenty-eight day non-stop immersion in the aquatic "basements" of the Mediterranean

The solution is not to go back! So to work at 120 meters under water for 28 days, Laurent Ballesta and his divers will lock themselves in a pressurized box with steel walls.

More exactly in two modules of life including a dormitory module of 5m ² and a wet module with a bathroom and toilet, 2m ². With Ballesta, his long-time accomplices: Antin Guilbert, marine biologist, Thibault Rauby, instructor dive instructor and lighting assistant, and Yanick Gentil, cameraman.

Every day, a bell will sink divers up to 120 meters deep. They will rise to the surface to eat and rest, but still locked up and subjected to a pressure thirteen times that of the atmosphere.

The technique is not new in itself. A technique already used for divers in the offshore oil industry repairing pipelines.

But in this new adventure each diver will be equipped with submarine thrusters and fins. They will be able to travel the funds up to eight hours a day!

"The global feat is our freedom! declares the biologist (...) we will be able to move as we see fit in sites untouched by any observation. It's a turning point in the history of diving. If joining such depths is always a challenge, staying there was a fantasy. This summer, utopia will become reality. "

The objectives of this mission

Thanks to this odyssey, the themes of pollution, biodiversity and history will be invited ..., a dozen French and foreign laboratories having commissioned unpublished research protocols. Black coral forests and coral reefs or mapping areas, study of wastewater disposal sites, exploration of a wreck dating from the First World War will be studied.

On the ground a whole team of about thirty scientists.

Three cameras will monitor the divers day and night and their state of health. Because such living conditions alter the character. At the helm of the "saturation technique" team of the project, Théo Mavrostomos, a legend who holds the record of the "world's deepest man" with an experimental dive at 701 meters.

"" Mediterranean Planet "is a technical challenge in the service of knowledge, a human and sporting challenge to better know the Mediterranean," explains the chief explorer.

Andrew Preston for DayNewsWorld

DISCOVERING A NEW HUMAN SPECIES

A new human species has been discovered in the northern Philippines:

it has been named Homo luzonensis by scientists.

Through the analysis of thirteen remains of fossils (teeth, phalanges of foot and hand, fragments of femur) found in the cave of Callao, researchers considered that it was a new species, they have named Homo luzonensis.

It presents at the same time "elements or very primitive characters resembling those of Australopithecus, and others, modern, close to those of Homo sapiens", one emphasizes with the museum of the Man.

Two of the analyzed fossils were dated directly by the uranium series method.

They are 50,000 years old and 67,000 years old respectively.

These are the oldest known human remains in the Philippines, preceding the first 30,000 to 40,000-year-old Homo sapiens found on Palawan Island, southwest of the archipelago.


Carl Delsey for DayNewsWorld

THE HIGHEST CO2 CONCENTRATION

FOR 3 MILLION YEARS

On April 6, 2019l, researchers warn about the concentration rate in the atmosphere of CO2, the main cause of global warming.

The concentration in the atmosphere of CO2 is at its highest for 3 million years, making the dramatic rise in global temperature and ocean levels unavoidable in a few centuries, warns researchers.

In fact, researchers have taken ice cores and marine sediments from the coldest part of the planet. The result is cold in the back:

the current level of carbon dioxide, a little over 400 parts per million (ppm), is the highest since 3 million years!

So far, the current level of carbon dioxide was no greater than that of 800,000 years ago, during a period marked by warming and cooling cycles of the Earth that would continue unabated. way today without the warming related to human activities.

Where the rub is the exceeding of the bar of 400 ppm that back to 3 million years back during the Pliocene.

Why ?

At that time at higher temperatures of 3 to 4 ° C, trees were growing in Antarctica and the ocean level was 15 meters higher!

"The end of the Pliocene is relatively close to us in terms of CO2 levels," said Matteo Willeit, researcher at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), lead author of the study

"Our models suggest that in the Pliocene there were no glacial cycles or large ice caps in the northern hemisphere. The CO2 was too high and the climate too hot to allow it. ".

What about the Paris agreement on the 2015 climate?

If it aims to limit global warming to + 2 ° C, or + 1.5 ° C, compared to the pre-industrial era in 2017, greenhouse gas emissions exceeded all records in human history!

The commitments of the signatory states of the Paris agreement would lead the world towards + 3 ° C.

Based on the CO2 concentrations, glaciologists predict an increase in ocean level between 50 cm and one meter by the end of this century, says the researcher.

"It would be difficult to be more, because the melt takes time. But it does not stop at 2100, it continues.

There are lessons to be learned from the Pliocene.

Alyson Braxton for DayNewsWorld

AN ISOLATED TRIBE FILMED BY A DRONE

IN AMAZON

Unseen images, captured by a drone near the border between Brazil and Peru, reveal the existence of a new isolated tribe, discovered by the Indian National Foundation.

Some people walking in a clearing in the middle of the abundant vegetation. Photos published by Funai also show canoes, an ax and a thatch hut.

The video was shot in 2017, but released this week.

It is part of the images collected by Funai during several expeditions in the Javari Valley, an area very difficult to access in the south-east of Amazonas.

The expedition has traveled more than 180 kilometers by boat, truck or motorbike, and 120 kilometers on foot in the dense forest to reach the region.

It is a Brazilian state (south-east) where the majority of the evidence of existence of isolated peoples in the country was gathered with the discovery of clues such as a huge hut, homemade axes, a bugle made with bark or canoes dug into palm tree trunks.

Eight indigenous tribes in the region have already come into contact with the outside world, according to Funai, while at least eleven others still live in autarky.

The institute obtained these images during a mission to protect isolated Indians, the third "in less than a year in this region," said his statement.

The expedition relies on the help of members of the Kanamari people, connoisseurs of the region.

It also recorded not only "the assiduous presence of hunters" but also the encroachment of landowners in these Indian-only territories.

She met two teams of poachers on her way and forced them to release the captured animals alive.

"Vigilance and control need to be intensified in the region to prevent delinquent action and to ensure the entire indigenous ownership of the territory , " said Vitor Góis, the project coordinator.

Carl Delsey for DayNewsWorld

 

ERRUPTION OF THE KILAUE VOLCANO


Kilauea is one of the most active volcanoes in the world and one of Hawaii's five, the largest in the archipelago.

The lava flows into the ocean near Pahoaet causing acid fumes.

According to Hawaii authorities, the arrival in the Pacific Ocean of lava from Kilauea volcano, erupted May 3, causes a dangerous chemical phenomenon.

Two lava flows "hit the ocean on the southeast coast of Puna" on the Big Island of Hawaii, according to a statement released Sunday by the US Institute of Geological Survey (USGS).

An open crack in the ground, however, "diverted the lava [...] in underground cavities , " says the USGS release.

The meeting of incandescent lava and water produces acid fumes, a phenomenon referred to in English as laze, a word formed from lava (lava) and haze (fog).

"The plume is an irritating mixture of hydrochloric acid (HCl), steam and small particles of volcanic glass, according to the USGS. This hot, corrosive gaseous mixture caused two deaths in the immediate vicinity of the coastal steam entry point and small volcanic glass particles, according to the USGS. This hot, corrosive gaseous mixture caused two deaths in the immediate vicinity of the coastal entry point in 2000, when the sea hit recent and active lava flows. "

Due to moderate winds, leeward areas "may experiment with various levels of vog [volcanic smog]" , volcanic fog created by the reaction of emissions to oxygen, moisture, dust, and sunlight , according to the USGS.

Its eruption on May 3 has already forced some 2,000 people to evacuate their homes.

Scientists believe that volcanic activity is perhaps heralding a major eruption similar to that of the mid-1920s.

Carl Delsey for DayNewsWorld

 

There are no translations available.

PHARAONIQUE PROJET NEOM EN ARABIE SAOUDITE

Face à la perspective de la fin du tout pétrole, l’Arabie saoudite s'est engagée dans une grande réorientation de son économie, dans une vaste diversification pour ne plus dépendre que de l'or noir. Ce pays n'hésite pas à s'emparer des technologies le plus innovantes pour investir à coup de milliards de dollars dans des projets pharaoniques..La mégapole Neom: tout y sera moderne et innovant selon le projet présenté sur le site Discoverneom.com.

Le prince héritier saoudien Mohammed ben Salmane Al Saoud a de grands projets pour la ville futuriste qu'il compte faire construire au bord de la Mer rouge au nord-ouest du pays dans une zone pour le moment désertique. "Seuls les rêveurs sont les bienvenus", proclame Mohammed ben Salmane, prince héritier d'Arabie saoudite en dévoilant son projet pharaonique .

Baptisée Neom (ou Neo-Mostaqbal qui signifie « nouveau futur »), cette mégapole promet d'embrasser les dernières technologies en matière d'énergies renouvelables, d'architectures et de transports. Un projet de pas moins de 500 milliards de dollars...

A terme cette vaste zone de développement économique de 26.500 km² devrait s'étendre aux rives de l'Égypte et de la Jordanie sur 460 kilomètres de côtes dans le golfe d'Aqaba.

Cette mégapole du futur entend aussi révolutionner l'alimentation de ses citoyens grâce à l'agriculture verticale, le développement de cultures en zones arides et en eau de mer ainsi que l'utilisation de serres photovoltaïques.

La mégapole utilisera massivement les énergies renouvelables, avec des fermes éoliennes et photovoltaïques et des systèmes de stockage d'énergie à grande échelle. Un programme de dessalement de l'eau de mer sera développé. Neom sera dotée du plus grand jardin installé au cœur d'une métropole, d'un mode d'agriculture vertical, de cultures en zones arides et en eau de mer. Pour les transports centrale dans ce projet on peut s' attendre à solutions autonomes et écologiques. Bien qu'aucun détail n'ait encore été divulgué à ce sujet, les voitures et transports en commun autonomes et les drones taxis sont cités en bonne place.

Pourquoi construire une telle mégalopole ?

La création de cette mégapole futuriste exemplaire d’un point de vue environnemental doit devenir attractive pour les secteurs économiques de pointe et participe de la volonté de diversification pour ne plus dépendre seulement de l'or noir..

Concrètement Neom sera appelé à être une zone de développement économique dotée d'une législation et d'une fiscalité spécifiques pour favoriser les investissements et attirer les compétences humaines. Les secteurs-clés de la science sont ciblés non seulement les biotechnologies- « Le monde se tournera vers Neom pour la prochaine génération de thérapie génique, la génomique, la recherche sur les cellules souches, la nano-biologie et la bio-ingénierie », peut-on lire sur le site promotionnel- mais aussi les domaines de l'Internet des objets, de l'impression 3D, de la robotique, des nanotechnologies mais aussi de l'industrie des loisirs

La première phase du projet Neom devrait s'achever en 2025. En 2030, ses promoteurs prédisent que la ville contribuera à hauteur de 100 milliards de dollars à l'économie saoudienne

Le prince héritier saoudien ambitionne donc de construire une mégalopole à la pointe de la technologie au bord de la Mer rouge pour y développer un "mode de vie idyllique combiné à d'exceptionnelles perspectives économiques".

Dans la vidéo promotionnelle de cette ville du futur, on voit des femmes vêtues à l'occidental qui travaillent à côté d'hommes. Une révolution qui répond aux vœux du prince héritier, chantre d'une nouvelle Arabie saoudite "modérée et ouverte", en rupture avec l'ultraconservatisme religieux.

Paul Emison pour DayNewsWorld

LIE CLIMATIC HEATING

TO HUMAN ACTIVITIES OR

WIDE SMOOTHING OF COP 21 ?

The affirmation of Marcel Leroux, eminent climatologist can appeal to more than one citizen at the time of the big COP21 summit in Paris. The latter had stated bluntly

that there was' no causal relationship, physically based, proven and quantified (...) established between the evolution of temperature (rise, but also decline) and the variation of the greenhouse effect by CO2.

A fortiori, no relationship is demonstrated between human activities and the climate: the man is in no way responsible for climate change. "(NRH, 2007, n ° 31).

Moreover, the fluctuations of the climate have always marked the long history of humanity, passing from more or less icy periods to more or less temperate periods.
How then to understand this high mass of 176 countries gathered in Paris - at great cost to the French taxpayer - trying to find an agreement against global warming linked to human activities?

For all these countries, it would be necessary to reduce the concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere, as well as those of some other greenhouse gases - methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and CFC- due to man, guilty that they would be warming our planet ...

It is that an intergovernmental panel on climate change (the IPCC) was created by the United Nations in 1988. It has concocted a synthesis of various

scientific studies on this issue. His latest and fourth report, based on more than 2,500 scientists from 130 countries, concludes that global warming since 1950 is most likely due to the rise in anthropogenic greenhouse gases.

In addition, a study published late 2012 has assembled and compared simulations from 20 different computer models in this direction. These climate modulations added to information from satellite observations by a team of US climatologists would have led to the conclusion that human activities were at the origin of the change in the temperature of the troposphere and the stratosphere.

This is without counting with unquestionable scientific data:

-the oceans produce 80 gigatonnes of CO2, the vegetation 13 while humans produce only 7. A drop of water in the ocean.

-the sun is the most important source of heat. The flow of radiation from the Sun - mainly visible light and near-infrared radiation - heats the Earth. The climate depends on it.

-While even assuming that the global surface temperature is likely to increase by an additional 1.6 ° to 4 ° C in the 21st century, as climate model projections would seem to predict, it remains that the tiny part of man's production of carbon dioxide hardly interferes with global warming. The man would come to disappear that our planet would warm anyway!

Of course we can not question the general climate change. The latter is already noticeable in extreme weather events. Our planet suffers more and more heat waves, droughts, floods due to exceptional floods, tornadoes ... Global warming will accelerate, but it does not have a human origin. Even more disconcerting the existence of periods of glaciation with a high rate of CO2 when man did not exist!

Consequently, there is no need to make men feel too guilty.

Moreover, the only controversy over the melting of the Kilimanjaro glacier that lost 82% of its glacier during the twentieth century and could disappear in 2020 poses the problem of the impartiality of IPCC analyzes.

Indeed, what are the real causes of the retreat of the Kilimanjaro glacier in Africa?

Some climate scientists attribute it to a decrease in snowfall since the 19th century, while others believe that the ice of Kilimanjaro having withstood a long drought 4000 years ago is melting because of global warming.

"It is premature to say that Himalayan glaciers are backing up abnormally due to global warming. A glacier is influenced by a variety of physical factors and a complex interconnection of climatic factors. "Says a recognized scientist.

In addition, an error concerning the date of melting of the Himalayan glaciers in the 900-page IPCC 2007 report knowingly retained when it was reported by a member of the Institute of Glaciology in 2006 discredited the respect of the validation procedures.

Climate-skeptics shouted at the manipulation of numbers. The broad scientific consensus has collapsed.

Why demonize at this point global warming?

There is no doubt that it is a question of making adherence by all means and, even passing by the caricature and the demonization, the populations. The Machiavellianism of rulers, ecologists and unscrupulous industrialists is certainly part of this logic.

So the question is who benefits from the crime?

New industries using new technologies such as wind power, solar energy, biofuels, electric cars, carbon sequestration, etc. are being developed as a result of IPCC alarm sirens; Protocols have been accepted by many countries, such as the Rio Protocol in 1992 and the Kyoto Protocol in 1997. As a result, the world's economy, which is essentially based on oil and other fossil fuels, is fiercely competing with these new clean energy technologies. . This causes significant political tensions and conflicts of interest.

No wonder that global warming is becoming the stumbling block between industrialists with conflicting interests and between different countries of the world.

In addition to new industries using new technologies to avoid emitting greenhouse gases, the nuclear industry that evokes a production of "clean" electricity is doing well. As for the oil industries, they handle the double language .

What about different nations?

It is also the division and the confrontation which lead the debates on the question of the global warming. Indeed if, in the concert of the nations, no one does not really dispute the physical laws involved in the global warming, the reduction of the Greenhouse gas in human activities is not self-evident.

This is because the interests of different countries do not necessarily converge.

The United States emits 25% of greenhouse gases. China emits the same percentage, but represents a reduced rate of emission if it is reduced to the number of inhabitants.

Globally, the richest countries are minority in number of inhabitants, but emit more greenhouse gases than the emerging countries and the most disadvantaged countries. Nevertheless the ratio (CO2 / $ of GDP) is very variable, some developed countries are relatively efficient (Japan, France, Switzerland, Nordic countries) and others rather average (United States for example) whereas much less developed countries emit a lot of CO2 (ex-USSR in particular). These data show that economic growth does not necessarily lead to an increase in releases and that there is significant room for improvement in many countries, without affecting the comfort of life of the inhabitants.

Nations are divided over policies to limit greenhouse gas emissions. The European Union is generally in favor of the fight against global warming, with the notable exception of the Czech Republic and its President Vaclav Klaus, the United States, Australia, India have long been reluctant judging these costly and insufficiently scientifically sound limitation policies. Russia, Canada, China were until then the least enthusiastic.

Certainly the COP21 ...

Even if this is the case, is it reasonable to stop the current efforts of the international community to reduce CO2 emissions into the atmosphere by giving in to pressure from lobbies, oil companies and others?

There is no doubt that the explosion in the price of a barrel of oil has played an important role in the willingness of states to reduce CO2 emissions. A virtuous circle indeed appears: by consuming less, one reduces both the energy bill and the contribution to global warming. This purely physical phenomenon that is actually global warming is presented as a curse punishing men guilty of succumbing to the sirens of energy overconsumption. Ecologists to exploit global warming for their theses on the reduction of economic growth. The increase in the temperature of the globe, however, does not have the same consequences for everyone. This phenomenon does not affect the entire planet in the same way. So we can ask ourselves who benefits from the crime? Are we able, today, to anticipate the consequences of global warming on the different parts of the globe? Melting ice, while it can be dramatic for polar bears, also opens trade routes for some countries ...

And what about the spectacular conversion of François Hollande to the climatic cause. Sincere awareness?

Political maneuver to mend with the ecologists?

The recent news, from Notre-Dame-des-Landes to Sivens via the suspension of the ecotax, is perplexing.

Declarations and initiatives succeed one another: the forthcoming elimination of coal subsidies in aid to developing countries, a promised intervention in Brussels to put an end, in the long term, to European aid for fossil fuels and for an orientation of the plan. Juncker for green growth and the energy transition. Not to mention the famous paragraph on climate obtained by France in the final declaration of the last G20 summit.

Mistrust .


Larry Ricky for DayNewsWorld.